During the second presidential term of Hugo R. Chávez, the Orinoco Mining Arc (highlighted in red) administrative body was created under Decree No. 8,415 of August 23, 2011, Official Gazette No. 39,741. In 2016, Nicolás Maduro unconstitutionally decreed the Arco Minero del Orinoco National Strategic Development Zone (Decree No. 2,248 of Official Gazette No. 40,855), without the approval of the National Assembly or prior and informed public consultation, both criteria established in the Constitution. National for this type of decrees.
The Orinoco Mining Arc is located south of the Orinoco River. With its five mining blocks, it extends 111,843.70 km2 = 12% of the territory of Venezuela.
Area 1: The westernmost area, bordering the Cuchivero River, where bauxite, coltan, rare earths and diamonds are the main minerals.
Area 2: Delimited by the Cuchivero and Aro rivers, non-metallic minerals and alluvial gold.
Area 3: Between the Aro River and the easternmost river, bauxite and iron ore. can be found
Area 4: It overlaps the Imataca Forest Reserve, where gold, copper, kaolin and dolomite predominate
Area 5: Icabarú special block with gold and diamonds.